by Julian Spector
September 06, 2018

Storage will play a crucial role in eradicating carbon from California’s grid, but there’s no reason to assume it will all be the lithium-ion batteries popular today.

For one thing, other technologies have a major head-start. Pumped hydro energy storage, which lifts water to a raised reservoir and uses it to turn a turbine when power is needed, outguns battery storage at an epic scale. For all of California's leadership in installing grid batteries, 98 percent of its grid storage comes from its seven pumped hydro facilities, totaling about...